Medical air systems are a essential component of all hospitals and many other health care services. The engineer must consider cost, capability, physical size and weight, space limitations, and mechanical and electrical utility accessibility in selecting a system for a particular project. It is essential to synchronize the equipment options with the proprietor as well as other engineering and design disciplines.

The first concern is life safety. Medical atmosphere is utilized for breathing therapy and calibration of medical gadgets for breathing application. Providing clean, oil-totally free air is mandatory. The hydrogen compressor must not be used to supply air for any other purpose (e.g., medical center lab use) as a result of opportunities for toxic contamination from the syndication system. When a patient inhales medical atmosphere contaminated by oil from the defunct compressor or nitrogen coming from a brazing purge, the consequences might be irreversible. Furthermore, a power or pipeline shutdown has to be coordinated with all the hospital staff to avoid an accidental service termination whilst individuals are linked to the system. Engineers should know about the prerequisites prior to designing any medical gas system.

Distribution Systems

Medical compressed atmosphere systems should be designed to avoid the introduction of contaminants or liquid to the pipeline. Medical air systems must:

• be provided from cylinders, bulk containers, or medical air compressor sources; or reconstituted from o2 USP and essential oil-totally free, dry nitrogen

• meet specifications in the medical atmosphere

• contain no detectable fluid hydrocarbons

• contain fewer than 25 ppm gaseous hydrocarbons

• contain 5 mg/m3 or less of permanent particulates size 1 micron or larger at normal atmospheric pressure.

In a typical completely functioning healthcare center, the medical air is supplied by a high-stress tube manifold system or even a medical atmosphere compressor system. Manifold distribution systems typically are employed in facilities which have hardly any need for medical air. Medical atmosphere compressor vegetation typically are for bigger services.

Existing services may choose to upgrade their equipment and associated pipeline or include medical atmosphere vegetation since the facility expands. When selecting a piece of gear for a new center, the chance of future expansion is highly recommended. To enable for long term development, it really is great practice to become conservative in sizing a system.

Duplex Medical Air Compressor Source Systems

An engineer usually has more options readily available when making for any new facility than for a renovation or substitute project. Electrical and mechanised resources can be more easily determined, and chilled water, ventilation, and electric services can be size and properly found. The perfect schematic design has a properly-ventilated, readily available mechanised room focused on medical gasoline gear.

In selecting a medical air compressor for the update, the professional might have some problems as a result of mechanised power inefficiencies (e.g., bad ice cold water high quality, a poorly ventilated mechanical space). The neighborhood electric utility might not keep the water pump arrangement, or bad gear accessibility might require breakdown of gear components with a significant price improve. It is actually important to conduct thorough surveys in the surrounding mechanical room and resources before determining the most effective type of co2 compressor for the project.

It is a great idea to select more than one type of compressor on the schematic design phase. You ought to create a master plan that demonstrates current demand and estimated extra capacity. The property owner might want to obtain a cost estimation before making your final choice.

Types of Compressors

All medical air compressors should be able to provide compressed air that will not contain essential oil. This short article specifically works with medical air systems for Degree 1 medical centers.

You can find 3 appropriate types:

• Essential oil-totally free compressors: These reciprocating compressors have no essential oil movie on surfaces in contact with atmosphere being compressed. They actually do have oil within the device and require separation from the oil-that contains area from the compression chamber by at least two seals. The interconnecting shaft and closes should be noticeable without disassembling the compressor.

• Oilless compressors: These reciprocating or rotary-scroll compressors do not have essential oil within the machine. Lubrication is restricted to seal bearings.

• Fluid ring water pump: These rotary air compressor pumping systems use a water seal off. It is recommended that a heat exchanger be applied to save seal off water.

Medical air compressor plants ought to be sized to provide maximum calculated need once the biggest compressor has run out of services. Inside an effective design of the larger system (i.e., 3 pumping systems or maybe more), every compressor is sized to handle the same amount of the peak need and create redundancy. There never ought to be fewer than two compressors.

Accessory Gear

Several items of mechanised gear go along with the medical atmosphere compressor system:

• Intake: The compressor’s air consumption has to be found outside, previously mentioned roof degree, as well as at least 10 feet from the door, windowpane, other intake, or other opening up. Intakes should be rejected, screened, and built with consumption filtration system mufflers. These filter systems eliminate considerable amounts of particulates (tiny contaminants of strong or liquid issue suspended within the air) and contaminants at the compressor inlet.

• Atmosphere receiver: The part from the air recipient is to shop air and equilibrium pressure variants. It should possess a full-size bypass and also a manual and automatic deplete to get rid of any gathered condensate. It has to fulfill American Society of Mechanised Engineers ( ) Area 8 boiler and stress vessel building standards. The recipient is sized based upon system demand, compressor size, and compressor operating occasions.

• Compressed air clothes dryer: The clothes dryer is used to eliminate water vapor from the air stream. At the very least, it must be a duplex system valved to enable one device to become maintained. Dryers should be from the desiccant twin-tower kind, size for completely of determined load at design conditions. They ought to be rated for 32°F (0°C).

• Duplex last filter systems: These ought to be ranked for completely system capability, with a minimum of 98Percent effectiveness at 1 micron or greater. The filter should be designed with a visual indicator displaying the rest of the filtration system element life.

• Medical air regulators: Regulators control the stress from the air system. They should be sized for completely from the system’s maximum determined need at design problems. Pressure regulators should be set to supply the most faraway outlet with 50-psig medical atmosphere.

• Alarm sensors: A medical atmosphere compressor should have alarm sensors located nearby in which they could be constantly monitored by medical center staff. Common alarms are for high pressure, low stress, along with other problems (e.g., lead/delay water pump procedure, higher heat, high dew stage, carbon monoxide). Additional alarm signals may be additional dependant upon the type of compressor and also the owner’s preference.

• Anti–vibrations mountings: These ought to be provided for your liquid nitrogen generator, receiver, and dryers, as essental to the producer.


Medical atmosphere piping is size according to the calculated stream price in cubic ft each minute (cfm). Compressed air piping is built of brazed type-L copper prepared for oxygen service. The piping should be pitched toward the central plant, have drains at low points and it ought to be valved and identified.

The flow rate for medical atmosphere outlets typically is 1 cfm. The pipeline flow rate is determined by keeping track of the number of linked medical atmosphere outlets and using a use aspect. The stream rate from the complete quantity of outlets is called the complete linked weight. Simply because its not all shops are normally utilized simultaneously, a simultaneous use factor should be placed on decrease the system flow price. The speed will be applied to the dimensions in the pipeline and compressors. The American Society of Plumbing related Engineers ( ) has created a table that quantifies medical atmosphere usage in different areas of a healthcare facility.

Once the complete connected load has become determined and the use factor has become applied, the primary pipeline and compressor equipment may be successfully sized and selected.

In conclusion, engineers need to take care when sizing and specifying medical atmosphere gear to meet the needs from the health care facility as well as its individuals. Before you begin a project, be sure to review the specifications hzcilb to medical gas systems of the very recent codes. The details on hand and technology are developing on a regular basis, and it is the engineer’s responsibility to get well informed.

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